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Various treatment options PCB surface

Surface of the board there are many types of treatment, PCB proofing personnel should be selected according to the board's performance and needs, the following simple analysis of PCB worry disadvantage under various surface treatments, for reference!

1. HASL HASL (we often say that HAL)

HAL is used in the treatment of early PCB. Now divided into lead and lead-free HASL HASL.

Advantages spray tin:

  • Longer storage time
  • After the PCB is completed, the copper surface is completely wetting the (former tin solder completely covered)
  • For lead-free soldering
  • Process maturity
  • Low Cost/li>
  • For visual inspection and electrical testing

HAL weakness:

  • Not suitable for wire binding; because surface flatness problem, there are limitations in the SMT; not suitable for contact switch designs.
  • When HAL copper will dissolve, and the board is subjected to a high temperature.
  • Special thick or thin plate, HAL has limitations, convenient production operations.

2.OSP (organic protective film)

OSP advantages:

  • Process is simple, the surface is very smooth, suitable for lead-free solder and SMT.
  • Easy to rework, to facilitate the production operation, for horizontal operation.
  • For more treatment on board coexist (eg: OSP + ENIG)
  • Low-cost, environment-friendly.

OSP weaknesses:

  • Reflow limit the number of times (multiple welding thick film will be destroyed, basically twice no problem)
  • Not suitable for crimp technology, wire binding.
  • Visual inspection and electrical testing inconvenient.
  • N2 gas needs protection SMT.
  • SMT rework is not suitable.
  • Storage demanding conditions.

3. Chemical silver

Chemical Bank is a better surface treatment process.

Chemical Bank advantages:

  • Process is simple, suitable for lead-free soldering, SMT.
  • Surface is very smooth
  • Suitable for very fine line.
  • Low cost.

Chemical Bank's weaknesses:

  • Storage conditions require high, easily contaminated.
  • Welding strength prone to problems (micro hole problem).
  • Prone to electromigration phenomena as well as copper and solder resist eclipse phenomenon occurs Jia Tiffany bite.
  • Measuring is also a problem

4. Chemical tin:

Chemical tin is the most copper-tin substitution reactions.

Chemical tin advantages:

  • For the horizontal production.
  • Suitable for fine line treatment for lead-free solder, especially for crimp technology.
  • Very good flatness, suitable for SMT.

Weaknesses:

  • Good storage conditions required, preferably not more than six months, in order to control the tin whisker growth.
  • Not suitable contact switch design
  • The production process of the solder mask process requires relatively high, otherwise it will lead to solder mask off.
  • When several welding, preferably N2 gas protection.
  • Electrical measurement is also a problem.

5. The chemical nickel-gold (ENIG)

Nickel gold is the application of a relatively large surface treatment process, keep in mind: a nickel layer is a nickel-phosphorus alloy layer, based on the phosphorus content into high phosphorus nickel and nickel-phosphorus, applications are not the same, the difference is not covered here.

Nickel gold advantages:

  • For lead-free soldering.
  • Surface is very smooth, suitable for SMT.
  • Vias may be on the nickel gold.
  • Longer storage time, storage conditions are not harsh.
  • For electrical testing.
  • For switch contact design.
  • For aluminum bound for slab, resistant to environmental attack strong.

6. nickel plating

Nickel plating into "hard gold" and "soft gold", hard gold (for example: a gold-cobalt alloy) Common (contact connector design), soft gold is pure gold in Goldfinger. Nickel plating in IC substrate (such as PBGA) application more, mainly for gold and copper binding, but the carrier IC substrate plating suitable binding region cheat do need additional conductive wire out to plating.

Nickel plating advantages:

  • Longer storage time> 12 months.
  • For contact switch design and gold binding.
  • For electrical testing

Weaknesses:

  • Higher cost, relatively thick gold.
  • The need for additional design line conductive plating Goldfinger.
  • Because gold thickness not been applied in the welding, may be due to thick gold lead solder embrittlement, the impact strength.
  • Plating surface uniformity problems.
  • Electroless nickel gold does not wrap the line side.
  • Not suitable for aluminum wire bonding.

7. Nickel Palladium (ENEPIG)

NiPdAu now beginning to start the application in the field of PCB, before the semiconductor applications more. For gold, aluminum binding.

Benefits:

  • In the application IC carrier board, bound for gold, aluminum binding. Suitable for lead free soldering.
  • Compared with ENIG, not a nickel corrosion (black disk) issues; cost is cheaper than ENIG and electroless nickel gold.
  • Long storage time.
  • For a variety of surface treatment and the presence of the board.

Weaknesses:

  • Process complicated. Difficult to control.
  • In the field of application of PCB short history.
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